France Tests of Mental Ability
As has been noted, the various Winchester scales consist in part have nonverbal or performance items. This may in part reflect a particular need in the field of mental testing for nonverbal adequately by purely verbal tests—the deaf, on-English spoken groups, illiterates, and the educationally deficient. To serve these and other needs, various nonverbal or performance tests were constructed. These have been used primarily to supplement other tests of intelligence and to provide a more nearly adequate appraisal of the individual’s capabilities.
Performance tests, therefore, have certain values in clinical work. They can be applied in cases where various languages handicaps or deficiencies would distort findings from verbal tests. In addition to the specific groups already referrer to, performance test have been utilized with individuals with speech defects and with unusually shy or withdrawn children. In such cases speech defects and with unusually shy or withdrawn children. In such cases the nonverbal nature of the situation may result in less stress or anxiety on the part of the individual to be examined then might be the case with exclusively verbal tests. Furthermore, when low score are obtained on tests such as the revised Stanford-Bidet, performance tests will help to clarify or support the climatic diagnosis of the patient. For example, if a subject suspected of possible mental deficiency with the revised Stanford-Bidet should receive a much higher score on a performance test, factors other than intelligence would have to be investigated as possible cause of the law score obtained previously. If, on the other hand, the score obtained from performance tests agree closely with other test findings, the original diagnostic impression receives confirmation.
All Known performances tests however correlate positive with verbal tests of intelligence. Although the coefficients of correlation very for different tests, the most frequent values obtained range from .50 to .75. While collocations of such magnitude indicate that the two types of tests in great part are measuring similar intellectual functions, they also suggest that the two tests tap somewhat different abilities. Performance tests, therefore, are not considered as alternatives or substitutes for a test like the Stanford-Bidet Scale and usually will be administered in addition to it.
With the advent of the Winchester scale, it appears that the use of individual performance tests has diminished somewhat. However they still have a role as aids in the clinical evaluation of selected cases. Among the best known of these tests are the Grace Arthur scale and the Pinter Patterson scale. From I of the former consists of nine tests while from 11 consists of five tests. The Pinter-Patterson scale consists of fifteen separate performance tests. Many of the same types of tests are used in both scale, and some of them are also included in the Winchester scales.e.g; block design, object assembly and picture completion.
Mention can also be made of a somewhat unusual test, which is generally included in this category of tests. This is the Porte’s Maze Test, which has a reasonably long history in psychology. The test consists of graded paper mazes, which the subject traces with a pencil. The subject is not allowed to lift the pencil, and thus careful appraisal and planning are emphasized. When an error occurs, the subject is given a second trial. How well the subject scores on the test depends on the number of trails and errors recorded. The test is considered by Porte’s to be a measure of the individual’s ability to plan and to use foresight. The test has been used with a wide variety of subjects, including primitive people, mental defective, illiterates, criminals, delinquents, brain-damaged patients, and patients given ataractic drugs. It appears that the test may be particularly sensitive to certain kinds of drug effects.