Our wise forefathers loved to repeat:
"Where is the heat there and welcome."
In bath-paired structures can be divided into three main types, depending on the temperature and humidity in the steam room unit:
1) The dry-air baths (urban public bath-heater, Russian, Finnish sauna) the temperature from 60 to 120 degrees and humidity of 5 to 25 percent;
2) wet bath (steam room, Russian, Finnish, east), temperature ranging from 50 to 70 degrees and the humidity from 80 to 100 percent;
3) water, or a Japanese bath .
Each of these baths has its advantages and disadvantages.
Ancient Baths - Roman baths . They consisted of several branches: for undressing and rest after the bath, the separation of the pool for the first washing, then wash with warm room and hot water. After that - for dry and wet steam bath. Heating steam rooms offices produced stoves that heated oil.
In Constantinople, the Roman baths were modified and became known as Turkish baths . Gender in them fueled by hot air, then he poured hot water, formed by pairs. In hot climates of the East regular visits to Turkish baths protected the people from various diseases.
Roman-Irish baths have spread around the world. They are pure air at a moderate temperature of 50-60 °. The hot air passes under the floor and the walls in special tubes. Process baths are as follows: Preparatory indoors, the first heating, steam room, which is fed through a perforated floor of the hot air. Therefore, passing from one room to another, there is an active sweating. From a Roman bath-house is distinguished by a special pipe to exit the exhaust air, which makes the atmosphere of steam baths healthy.
In Russia, baths are also known for a long time Russian baths. For example, in the charter of the Grand Duke Vladimir (966) baths were listed as "institutions - for the unfit." Across Russia, in villages and towns on the banks of rivers, lakes and streams built steam bath. Russian steam bath was a wooden hut, which has two rooms: cloakroom steam room and offices. In the steam room housed the stove - stove with stones.
Russian bath has two versions: with a furnace "in black" and "on-white." Furnace "in black" is the oldest, but she survived to the present day in some areas, such as in Siberia. The furnace stoked with no chimney, the smoke goes out through the open window of the sauna room. When the heater is well warmed up, the furnace is stopped, the bath was aired, the walls are doused with water, then close the doors and windows and give in to the water heater to produce steam. This room has a special spirit due to the impact of smoke on the wooden log construction.
Bath with a furnace "in white" is common throughout the country. In it the smoke from the heater is given through a tube, so the atmosphere is not polluted in the steam room, sauna room ventilation and obmyvki walls is not required. This room is more hygienic and modern.
The Russian bath is another species that occurs in the steppe and forest-free areas, where it is impossible to build a Log-house room. In the Russian oven after baking bread raked ash plank board and climb inside, where the pre-placed bucket with water and a broom. In the hot furnace walls wetted by water vapor is formed.
The Finnish sauna is very close to the Russian bath, although it is often contrasted with bath, attributing the Russian wet steam and sauna - dry.
In recent years we have become prestigious and fashionable to attend a Finnish sauna, and not Russian steam bath. But the real Finnish sauna, the people are no different from the Russian steam bath. In the Russian bath, sauna and steam has long been received by pouring red-hot stones in the fire. And the Russian, Finnish and brooms used in bath treatments. And the Russian, and the Finns, when warmed up, thrown into cold water or snow drift.
Sauna - the sister of Russian steam bath (by the way, "sauna" in Finnish just means "bath"). Ancestor of the Russian bath and sauna is the same timbered cottage, heated "in the black."
In the prospectus, advertising sauna, states that a person should be exposed to as much as possible of heated air. Dry air, having a lower thermal conductivity and specific heat can raise the temperature in the sauna up to 100-120 ° C. Argued that as a result of the coverage in such a warm sauna more and this is its advantage.
In the Russian steam bath, as in this rustic sauna, air support higher water vapor content and therefore the temperature at head level in a bath does not exceed 60-65 ° C. Which is better - to judge physicians who study the impact of baths on the human body. However, to oppose Russian sauna bath should not be - because as a Russian steam bath and sauna, a modern upgraded can be equally easily configured to any desired temperature and humidity conditions.
Emerged in recent years the fashion for the sauna due to the fact that the Finns improved their baths, make them more comfortable and gave them wide publicity.
But the lack of saunas is that it is dry or the upper respiratory tract: there is scratchy throat, dry skin and mucous membranes .
As in Russian, Finnish saunas and steam produced in furnaces, stoves, by pouring water of the hot stones. Different moisture vapor depends on the unit heater and how often to wet rocks with water.
Construction of a Russian bath and sauna, the design of individual elements do not have any fundamental differences, and therefore the following recommendations for the construction of baths are shared.
In Japan, very popular water baths . A bath tub, arranged in a wooden barrel, which is filled with hot water at a temperature of about 45 °. Take a bath on the breast is immersed in it, wearing a hat on his head, soaked in cold water. The Japanese go to a bath 2-3 times a week.
Another type of Japanese bath is sawdust dry sauna . In pine sawdust is added herbs, then mix sawdust with herbs is heated to 60 °. Sawdust absorbs sweat, while highlighting the aromatic and medicinal substances.
There are also unusual, but very useful bath.
For example, you can always just take a steam bath in a bag with birch leaves or straw flower. You are a good warm up and aromatherapy session you will also be provided.
There is a sand bath . The hot sun on the sand absorbs a good pot buried in the sand a lot of people. These baths treat arthritis , rheumatism, nephritis, and some gynecological diseases . After that is very helpful to bathe in the sea.
Avicenna recommended sand bath with a watermelon. Watermelon - a diuretic fruit, and the patient's entire pot absorbs the sand. Thus, treating kidney disease .